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LD6346812
SENATE BILL NO. 1095
Offered January 23, 1995
A BILL to amend and reenact 16.1-241 of the Code of Virginia, as it is currently effective and as it may become effective, and to amend the Code of Virginia by adding sections numbered 18.2-75.1, 18.2-75.2 and 18.2-75.3, relating to abortions for minors; penalty.
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Patrons--Earley, Benedetti, Quayle and Stolle; Delegates: Crouch, Dudley, Forbes, Howell, Ingram, Katzen, Kilgore, McClure, McDonnell, Nelms, Newman, Nixon, Purkey, Ruff, Sherwood, Wagner, Way and Wilkins
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Referred to the Committee on Education and Health
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Be it enacted by the General Assembly of Virginia:

1. That 16.1-241 of the Code of Virginia, as it is currently effective and as it may become effective, is amended and reenacted and that the Code of Virginia is amended by adding sections numbered 18.2-75.1, 18.2-75.2 and 18.2-75.3 as follows:

16.1-241. Jurisdiction.

The judges of the juvenile and domestic relations district court elected or appointed under this law shall be conservators of the peace within the corporate limits of the cities and the boundaries of the counties for which they are respectively chosen and within one mile beyond the limits of such cities and counties. Except as hereinafter provided, each juvenile and domestic relations district court shall have, within the limits of the territory for which it is created, exclusive original jurisdiction, and within one mile beyond the limits of said city or county, concurrent jurisdiction with the juvenile court or courts of the adjoining city or county over all cases, matters and proceedings involving:

A. The custody, visitation, support, control or disposition of a child:

1. Who is alleged to be abused, neglected, in need of services, in need of supervision, a status offender, or delinquent, except where the jurisdiction of the juvenile court has been terminated under the provisions of 16.1-269.6;

2. Who is abandoned by his parent or other custodian or who by reason of the absence or physical or mental incapacity of his parents is without parental care and guardianship;

2a. Who is at risk of being abused or neglected by a parent or custodian who has been adjudicated as having abused or neglected another child in the care of the parent or custodian;

3. Whose custody, visitation or support is a subject of controversy or requires determination. In such cases jurisdiction shall be concurrent with and not exclusive of courts having equity jurisdiction, except as provided in 16.1-244;

4. Who is the subject of an entrustment agreement entered into pursuant to 63.1-56 or 63.1-204 or whose parent or parents for good cause desire to be relieved of his care and custody;

5. Where the termination of residual parental rights and responsibilities is sought. In such cases jurisdiction shall be concurrent with and not exclusive of courts having equity jurisdiction, as provided in 16.1-244;

6. Who is charged with a traffic infraction as defined in 46.2-100.

The authority of the juvenile court to adjudicate matters involving the custody, visitation, support, control or disposition of a child shall not be limited to the consideration of petitions filed by a mother, father or legal guardian but shall include petitions filed at any time by any party with a legitimate interest therein. A party with a legitimate interest shall be broadly construed and shall include, but not be limited to, grandparents, stepparents, former stepparents, blood relatives and family members. A party with a legitimate interest shall not include any person (i) whose parental rights have been involuntarily terminated by court order if the child subsequently has been legally adopted, or (ii) who has been convicted of a violation of subsection A of 18.2-61 or subsection B of 18.2-366 when the child who is the subject of the petition was conceived as a result of such violation. The authority of the juvenile court to consider a petition involving the custody of a child shall not be proscribed or limited where the child has previously been awarded to the custody of a local board of social services.

B. The admission of minors for inpatient treatment in a mental health facility in accordance with the provisions of Article 16 ( 16.1-335 et seq.) of this chapter and the commitment of a mentally ill person or judicial certification of eligibility for admission to a treatment facility of a mentally retarded person in accordance with the provisions of Chapters 1 ( 37.1-1 et seq.) and 2 ( 37.1-63 et seq.) of Title 37.1. Jurisdiction of the commitment and certification of adults shall be concurrent with the general district court.

C. Except as provided in subsections D and H hereof, judicial consent to such activities as may require parental consent may be given for a child who has been separated from his parents, guardian, legal custodian or other person standing in loco parentis and is in the custody of the court when such consent is required by law.

D. Judicial consent for emergency surgical or medical treatment for a child who is neither married nor has ever been married, when the consent of his parent, guardian, legal custodian or other person standing in loco parentis is unobtainable because such parent, guardian, legal custodian or other person standing in loco parentis (i) is not a resident of this Commonwealth, (ii) his whereabouts is unknown, (iii) he cannot be consulted with promptness, reasonable under the circumstances or (iv) fails to give such consent or provide such treatment when requested by the judge to do so.

E. Any person charged with deserting, abandoning or failing to provide support for any person in violation of law.

F. Any parent, guardian, legal custodian or other person standing in loco parentis of a child:

1. Who has been abused or neglected;

2. Who is the subject of an entrustment agreement entered into pursuant to 63.1-56 or 63.1-204 or is otherwise before the court pursuant to subdivision A 4 of this section;

3. Who has been adjudicated in need of services, in need of supervision, or delinquent, if the court finds that such person has by overt act or omission induced, caused, encouraged or contributed to the conduct of the child complained of in the petition.

G. Petitions filed by or on behalf of a child or such child's parent, guardian, legal custodian or other person standing in loco parentis for the purpose of obtaining treatment, rehabilitation or other services which are required by law to be provided for that child or such child's parent, guardian, legal custodian or other person standing in loco parentis. Jurisdiction in such cases shall be concurrent with and not exclusive of that of courts having equity jurisdiction as provided in 16.1-244.

H. Judicial consent to apply for work permit for a child when such child is separated from his parents, legal guardian or other person standing in loco parentis.

I. The prosecution and punishment of persons charged with ill-treatment, abuse, abandonment or neglect of children or with any violation of law which causes or tends to cause a child to come within the purview of this law, or with any other offense against the person of a child. In prosecution for felonies over which the court has jurisdiction, jurisdiction shall be limited to determining whether or not there is probable cause.

J. All offenses in which one family or household member is charged with an offense in which another family or household member is the victim and all offenses under 18.2-49.1.

In prosecution for felonies over which the court has jurisdiction, jurisdiction shall be limited to determining whether or not there is probable cause. For purposes of this subsection, "family or household member," as defined in 16.1-228, shall also be construed to include parent and child, stepparent and stepchild, brothers and sisters, and grandparent and grandchild, regardless of whether such persons reside in the same home.

K. Petitions filed by a natural parent, whose parental rights to a child have been voluntarily relinquished pursuant to a court proceeding, to seek a reversal of the court order terminating such parental rights. No such petition shall be accepted, however, after the child has been placed in the home of adoptive parents.

L. Any person who seeks spousal support after having separated from his spouse. A decision under this subdivision shall not be res judicata in any subsequent action for spousal support in a circuit court. A circuit court shall have concurrent original jurisdiction in all causes of action under this subdivision.

M. Petitions filed for the purpose of obtaining an order of protection pursuant to 16.1-253.1 or 16.1-279.1.

N. Any person who escapes or remains away without proper authority from a residential care facility in which he had been placed by the court or as a result of his commitment to the Virginia Department of Youth and Family Services.

O. Petitions for emancipation of a minor pursuant to Article 15 ( 16.1-331 et seq.) of this chapter.

P. Petitions for enforcement of administrative support orders entered pursuant to Chapter 13 ( 63.1-249 et seq.) of Title 63.1, or by another state in the same manner as if the orders were entered by a juvenile and domestic relations district court upon the filing of a certified copy of such order in the juvenile and domestic relations district court.

Q. Petitions for a determination of parentage pursuant to Chapter 3.1 ( 20-49.1 et seq.) of Title 20.

R. Petitions for the purpose of obtaining an emergency protective order pursuant to 16.1-253.4.

S. Petitions filed by school boards against a parent pursuant to 16.1-241.2.

T. Petitions for obtaining authorization for a physician to perform an abortion pursuant to 18.2-75.2.

The ages specified in this law refer to the age of the child at the time of the acts complained of in the petition.

16.1-241. (Delayed effective date) Jurisdiction.

The judges of the family court elected or appointed under this law shall be conservators of the peace within the corporate limits of the cities and the boundaries of the counties for which they are respectively chosen and within one mile beyond the limits of such cities and counties. Except as hereinafter provided, each family court shall have, within the limits of the territory for which it is created, exclusive original jurisdiction, and within one mile beyond the limits of said city or county, concurrent jurisdiction with the family court or courts of the adjoining city or county over all cases, matters and proceedings involving:

A. The custody, visitation, support, control or disposition of a child:

1. Who is alleged to be abused, neglected, in need of services, in need of supervision, a status offender, or delinquent, except where the jurisdiction of the family court has been terminated under the provisions of 16.1-269.6;

2. Who is abandoned by his parent or other custodian or who by reason of the absence or physical or mental incapacity of his parents is without parental care and guardianship;

2a. Who is at risk of being abused or neglected by a parent or custodian who has been adjudicated as having abused or neglected another child in the care of the parent or custodian;

3. Whose custody, visitation or support is a subject of controversy or requires determination;

4. Who is the subject of an entrustment agreement entered into pursuant to 63.1-56 or 63.1-204 or whose parent or parents for good cause desire to be relieved of his care and custody;

5. Where the termination of residual parental rights and responsibilities is sought;

6. Who is charged with a traffic infraction as defined in 46.2-100.

The authority of the family court to adjudicate matters involving the custody, visitation, support, control or disposition of a child shall not be limited to the consideration of petitions filed by a mother, father or legal guardian but shall include petitions filed at any time by any party with a legitimate interest therein. A party with a legitimate interest shall be broadly construed and shall include, but not be limited to, grandparents, stepparents, former stepparents, blood relatives and family members. A party with a legitimate interest shall not include any person (i) whose parental rights have been involuntarily terminated by court order if the child subsequently has been legally adopted, or (ii) who has been convicted of a violation of subsection A of 18.2-61 or subsection B of 18.2-366 when the child who is the subject of the petition was conceived as a result of such violation. The authority of the family court to consider a petition involving the custody of a child shall not be proscribed or limited where the child has previously been awarded to the custody of a local board of social services.

B. The admission of minors for inpatient treatment in a mental health facility in accordance with the provisions of Article 16 ( 16.1-335 et seq.) of this chapter and the commitment of a mentally ill person or judicial certification of eligibility for admission to a treatment facility of a mentally retarded person in accordance with the provisions of Chapters 1 ( 37.1-1 et seq.) and 2 ( 37.1-63 et seq.) of Title 37.1. Jurisdiction of the commitment and certification of adults shall be concurrent with the general district court.

C. Except as provided in subsections D and H hereof, judicial consent to such activities as may require parental consent may be given for a child who has been separated from his parents, guardian, legal custodian or other person standing in loco parentis and is in the custody of the court when such consent is required by law.

D. Judicial consent for emergency surgical or medical treatment for a child who is neither married nor has ever been married, when the consent of his parent, guardian, legal custodian or other person standing in loco parentis is unobtainable because such parent, guardian, legal custodian or other person standing in loco parentis (i) is not a resident of this Commonwealth, (ii) his whereabouts is unknown, (iii) cannot be consulted with promptness, reasonable under the circumstances or (iv) fails to give such consent or provide such treatment when requested by the judge to do so.

E. Any person charged with deserting, abandoning or failing to provide support for any person in violation of law pursuant to Chapter 5 ( 20-61 et seq.) of Title 20.

F. Any parent, guardian, legal custodian or other person standing in loco parentis of a child:

1. Who has been abused or neglected;

2. Who is the subject of an entrustment agreement entered into pursuant to 63.1-56 or 63.1-204 or is otherwise before the court pursuant to subdivision A 4 of this section;

3. Who has been adjudicated in need of services, in need of supervision, or delinquent, if the court finds that such person has by overt act or omission induced, caused, encouraged or contributed to the conduct of the child complained of in the petition.

G. Petitions filed by or on behalf of a child or such child's parent, guardian, legal custodian or other person standing in loco parentis for the purpose of obtaining treatment, rehabilitation or other services which are required by law to be provided for that child or such child's parent, guardian, legal custodian or other person standing in loco parentis.

H. Judicial consent to apply for work permit for a child when such child is separated from his parents, legal guardian or other person standing in loco parentis.

I. The prosecution and punishment of persons charged with ill-treatment, abuse, abandonment or neglect of children or with any violation of law which causes or tends to cause a child to come within the purview of this law, or with any other offense against the person of a child. In prosecution for felonies over which the court has jurisdiction, jurisdiction shall be limited to determining whether or not there is probable cause.

J. All offenses in which one family or household member is charged with an offense in which another family or household member is the victim and all offenses under 18.2-49.1.

In prosecution for felonies over which the court has jurisdiction, jurisdiction shall be limited to determining whether or not there is probable cause. For purposes of this subsection, "family or household member," as defined in 16.1-228, shall also be construed to include parent and child, stepparent and stepchild, brothers and sisters, and grandparent and grandchild, regardless of whether such persons reside in the same home.

K. Petitions filed by a natural parent, whose parental rights to a child have been voluntarily relinquished pursuant to a court proceeding, to seek a reversal of the court order terminating such parental rights. No such petition shall be accepted, however, after the child has been placed in the home of adoptive parents.

L. Any person who seeks spousal support after having separated from his spouse.

M. Petitions filed for the purpose of obtaining an order of protection pursuant to 16.1-253.1 or 16.1-279.1.

N. Any person who escapes or remains away without proper authority from a residential care facility in which he had been placed by the court or as a result of his commitment to the Virginia Department of Youth and Family Services.

O. Petitions for emancipation of a minor pursuant to Article 15 ( 16.1-331 et seq.) of this chapter.

P. Petitions for enforcement of administrative support orders entered pursuant to Chapter 13 ( 63.1-249 et seq.) of Title 63.1, or by another state in the same manner as if the orders were entered by a family court upon the filing of a certified copy of such order in the family court.

Q. Petitions for a determination of parentage pursuant to Chapter 3.1 ( 20-49.1 et seq.) of Title 20.

R. Petitions for the purpose of obtaining an emergency protective order pursuant to 16.1-253.4.

S. Suits for divorce and for annulling or affirming marriage in accordance with Title 20.

T. Suits for separate maintenance.

U. Suits for equitable distribution based on a foreign decree in accordance with 20-107.3.

V. Petitions for adoption.

W. Petitions for change of name when incident to suits for annulling or affirming marriage, divorce, or adoption or when ancillary to any action within the jurisdiction of the family court.

X. Petitions regarding records of birth pursuant to Chapter 7 ( 32.1-249 et seq.) of Title 32.1.

Y. Judicial review of school board actions pursuant to 22.1-87 and of hearing officer decisions pursuant to 22.1-214 and 22.1-214.1.

Z. Petitions filed by school boards against a parent pursuant to 16.1-241.2.

AA. Petitions for obtaining authorization for a physician to perform an abortion pursuant to 18.2-75.2.

The ages specified in this law refer to the age of the child at the time of the acts complained of in the petition.

18.2-75.1. Minors’ abortion; requirements and procedures; penalty.

For purposes of this section and 18.2-75.2:

“Authorized person” means a parent or duly appointed legal guardian or custodian of the minor or a person standing in loco parentis with whom the minor regularly and customarily resides and who has care and control the minor.

“Perform an abortion” means to interrupt or terminate a pregnancy by any surgical or nonsurgical procedure or induce a miscarriage as provided in 18.2-73, 18.2-74 or 18.2-75.

“Unemancipated minor” means a minor who has not been emancipated by (i) entry into a valid marriage, even thought the marriage may have been terminated by dissolution; (ii) active duty with any of the armed forces of the United States; or (iii) willingly living separate and apart from his or her parents or guardian, with the consent or acquiescence of the parents or guardian and supporting or being capable of supporting himself or herself and competently managing his or her own financial affairs.

B. A physician shall not knowingly perform an abortion upon an unemancipated minor unless:

1. The physician or his agent has given actual notice of his intention to perform such abortion directly to an authorized person, either in person or by telephone, at least twenty-four hours previous to the performance of the abortion, and the physician has secured the informed written consent of the minor;

2. The physician or his agent, after a reasonable effort to notify an authorized person, has (i) mailed notice to an authorized person by certified mail, addressed to such person at his usual place of abode, with return receipt requested, at least seventy-two hours previous to the performance of the abortion and (ii) secured the informed written consent of the minor;

3. At least one authorized person is present with the minor seeking the abortion, and the physician has secured the informed written consent of the minor;

4. The minor has delivered to the physician a written statement signed by an authorized person and witnessed by a competent adult that the authorized person knows of the minor’s intent to have an abortion, and the physician has secured the informed written consent of the minor; or

5. The minor has delivered to the physician a copy of a court order entered pursuant to 18.2-75.2 authorizing the abortion.

C. Notwithstanding the provisions of 18.2-71, any physician who performs an abortion in violation of this section shall be guilty of a Class 3 misdemeanor.

18.2-75.2. Judicial procedure in lieu of notification of minor’s abortion.

If an unemancipated minor elects not to allow notification of an authorized person as provided in 18.2-75.1, the minor may petition a court of competent jurisdiction in accordance with 16.1-241 to obtain authorization for a physician to perform an abortion.

After a hearing, a judge may authorize a physician to perform an abortion upon finding that the minor is mature and capable of giving informed consent to the proposed abortion. However, if the minor does not claim to be mature or if the judge determines that the minor is not mature, the judge shall, after a hearing, determine whether the performance of an abortion upon the minor without notification of an authorized person would be in the minor’s best interests and if the court finds that the abortion would be in the minor’s best interests, it shall so authorize a physician.

The minor may participate in the court proceedings on her own behalf, and the court may appoint a guardian ad litem for the minor. The court shall advise the minor that she has a right to counsel and shall, upon her request, appoint counsel for her.

Court proceedings under this section shall be confidential and shall be given precedence over other pending matters so that the court may reach a decision promptly and without delay in order to serve the best interests of the minor. Court proceedings under this section shall be heard as soon as practicable but in no event later than four days after the petition is filed.

An expedited confidential appeal to the circuit court shall be available to any minor for whom the court denies an order authorizing an abortion without notification. Any such appeal shall be heard and decided no later than five days after the appeal is filed. An order authorizing an abortion without notification shall not be subject to appeal.

No filing fees shall be required of the minor at trial or upon appeal.

If either the trial or appellate court fails to act within the time periods required by this section, the trial court shall immediately authorize a physician to perform the abortion without notification to an authorized person.

18.2-75.3. When notification or judicial approval not required.

The provisions of 18.2-75.1 shall not apply:

1. If the minor declares that she is abused or neglected and the attending physician has reason to suspect that the minor may be an abused or neglected child as defined in 63.1-248.2 and reports the suspected abuse or neglect in accordance with 63.1-248.3; or

2. Whenever the attending physician certifies in the minor’s medical record that in his good faith medical judgment the abortion is medically necessary immediately to avert the minor’s death or there is insufficient time to provide the required notice or judicial authorization because a delay would create a serious risk of (i) substantial impairment of a major bodily function or (ii) substantial physical injury.


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